New variants of the coronavirus have been identified around the world
The variants represent a natural evolution of the virus. These RNA viruses have a 'defect' that becomes an advantage for them: the great diffusive capacity that allows them to spread faster and more easily.
Why does the virus change?
Viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 tend to mutate many times due to the genes being written into the RNA. Enzymes that copy RNA inside our cells are prone to making mistakes.
When the nucleotide sequence that makes up the RNA code is copied, these enzymes make mistakes by inserting one nucleotide in place of another, which is why thousands of mutations in the virus causing the COVID-19. However, these changes almost always create a disadvantageous defect for the virus that does not survive. In rare cases, however, this replacement can prove to be an advantage for the virus, for example because it makes it resistant to an effective drug: the original strain does not survive the drug's effect, while the resistant one does. In these cases the mutated viruses are able to spread and propagate better than the wild ones.
The new variants:
ENGLISH VARIANT. It is the first to have alarmed the scientific community, due to the numerous alterations at the genetic level. according to scientists, it originated in South East England in September and spread very quickly due to increased ability to bind to the human ACE-2 receptor. Early data indicate that it is probably more contagious, but not more virulent. And it looks like it can be neutralized by current Covid vaccines.
SOUTH AFRICAN VARIANT. It was identified in early October and began to dominate very quickly in South Africa. Epidemiological data show that this South African is also more contagious but not more dangerous. And again, scientists agree that Covid vaccines should be effective.
BRAZILIAN VARIANT. It was most recently found in a case of reinfection: a 45-year-old nurse re-ill with this new variant 5 months after recovering from a previous infection caused by an older strain but with the second infection the woman's symptoms worsened. . This variant contains worrying mutations that prevent spike protein recognition making the task of anti-bodies difficult. Scientists are studying whether this variant could render current vaccines ineffective